FORKLIFT – Wheels and Rims
Depending on the type of forklift you own and the type of tires installed, specific wheels will be required. Multi-piece rims, split split and press-on wheels are the prominent types found on lift trucks today.
- For all wheel applications for tires 15" diameter and above – pneumatic or resilient tires
- Recommended for all sizes with resilient tires.
- Can be custom made for special applications and rim widths
- Meets or exceeds OE standards
- Depending on the wheel manufacturer a multi-piece wheel is also known as either 3 piece or 4 piece locking wheel.
- Care must be made when removing and installing tires on mult-piece rims. If the lock ring is worn or is not properly installed they can suddenly break away and cause a serious explosion.
- Designed for wheel applications for pneumatic tires sizes up to 12" diameter
- Easy to replace tires
- Inspection should be made periodically to check for cracking around the mounting holes
- Least expensive wheel option
- Meets or exceeds OE standard
- Manufactured with machined steel or cast type material to the specifications of forklift model applicable.
- Order by forklift manufacturer's part number
- For cushion tire forklift applications
To best identify the correct wheel or rim for your forklift, identification is normally established using the correct manufacturer's part number for the required wheel or rim. Always provide the make, model and serial number of your forklift as well as the tire size and type. For press-on tire forklifts it is best if possible to read the tire size off the side of the existing tire. Most popular types are available in 1 to 2 days.
Due to potential risks it is best to have a trained professional perform changing of your forklift tires and rims.
Liftway can also can obtain good used rims and wheels for popular forklifts.
For special applications we can measure the application and have a wheel custom made.
Servicing Single-Piece and Multi-Piece Rim Wheels
U.S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
What Are Rim Wheels and Tires?
Why Are Safety Standards Needed for Servicing Single-Piece and Multi-Piece Rim Wheels?
Approximately 322,000 employees in more than 100,000 workplaces service large vehicle tires that are mounted on either multi-piece or single-piece wheels. In 1984, OSHA amended the safety standard for servicing multi-piece rim wheels (29 Code of Federal Regulations 1910.177) to include requirements for the safe servicing of single-piece rim wheels used on large trucks, trailers, buses, and off-road machines. OSHA's standard does not apply to the servicing of rim wheels utilizing automobile tires or to trucks designated “LT” (light trucks).
The amended safety standard for servicing single-piece and multi-piece rim wheels has four major requirements: (1) training for all tire servicing employees; (2) the use of industry-accepted procedures that minimize the potential for employee injury; (3) the use of proper equipment such as clip-on chucks, restraining devices or barriers to retain the wheel components in the event of an incident during the inflation of tires; and (4) the use of compatible components.
There has been a more than 70-percent reduction in multi-piece rim wheel servicing injuries since the original standard was issued in 1980 — based on a review of the record of multi-piece rim wheel accidents investigated by OSHA. Similar results have been experienced with the regulation of single-piece rim wheel servicing where workers also face a significant risk of serious injury or death.
What Are The Hazards of Working With These Large Vehicle Tires?
The principal difference between accidents involving single-piece rim wheels and those involving multi-piece rim wheels is the effect of the sudden release of the pressurized air contained in a single-piece rim wheel. Single-piece rim wheel accidents occur when the pressurized air contained in the tire is suddenly released, either by the bead breaking or by the bead slipping over the rim flange. The principal hazards involve pressurized air which, once released, can either hurl an employee across the shop if the employee is in close proximity to the rim wheel and within the trajectory, or can propel the rim wheel across the workplace and into a worker. The trajectory of the air or rim wheel is any potential path or route (basically along the axis of the rim wheel) that a rim wheel component may travel during an explosive separation, or the area into which the air blast from a single-piece rim wheel may be released. In a multi-piece rim wheel accident, the wheel components separate and are released from the rim wheel with violent force. The severity of the hazard is related not only to the air pressure but also to the air volume.
What Are Safe Operating Procedures for Single-Piece Rim Wheels?
Employees must be instructed in and must use the following steps for safe operating procedures with single-piece wheels:
- The tire must be completely deflated by removing the valve core before demounting.
- Mounting and demounting of the tire must be performed only from the narrow ledge side of the wheel. Care must be taken to avoid damaging the tire beads, and the tire must be mounted only on a compatible wheel of mating bead diameter and width.
- A noninflammable rubber lubricant must be applied to bead and wheel mating surfaces before assembling the rim wheel, unless the tire or wheel manufacturer recommends against the use of any rubber lubricant.
- If a tire changing machine is used, the tire may be inflated only to the minimum pressure necessary to force the tire bead onto the rim ledge and create an airtight seal before removal from the tire changing machine.
- If a bead expander is used, it must be removed before the valve core is installed and as soon as the rim wheel becomes airtight (when the tire bead slips onto the bead seat).
- The tire may be inflated only when contained within a restraining device, positioned behind a barrier, or bolted on the vehicle with the lug nuts fully tightened.
- The tire must not be inflated when any flat, solid surface is in the trajectory and within 1 foot (30.48 centimeters) of the sidewall.
- The tire must not be inflated to more than the inflation pressure stamped in the sidewall unless a higher pressure is recommended by the manufacturer.
- Employees must stay out of the trajectory when the tire is being inflated.
- Heat must not be applied to a single-piece wheel.
- Cracked, broken, bent, or otherwise damaged wheels must not be reworked, welded, brazed or otherwise heated.
What Servicing Equipment Must Be Supplied?
The restraining device can be a cage, rack, or an assemblage of bars and other parts that will constrain all rim wheel components during an explosive separation of the multi-piece wheel or during the sudden release of the contained air of a single-piece rim wheel.
A barrier can be a fence, wall, or other structure or object placed between a single-piece rim wheel and an employee during tire inflation to contain the rim wheel components in the event of the sudden release of contained air. Each barrier or restraining device must be able to withstand the maximum force of an explosive rim wheel separation or release of the pressurized air occurring at 150 percent of the maximum tire specification pressure for the rim wheel being serviced.
Restraining devices showing any of the following defects must be immediately removed from service:
- cracks at welds;
- cracked or broken components;
- bent or sprung components caused by mishandling, abuse, tire explosion, or rim wheel separation; or
- component pitted due to corrosion or other structural damage that would decrease its effectiveness.
Restraining devices or barriers removed from service must not be returned to service until they are repaired and reinspected. Restraining devices or barriers requiring structural repair such as component replacement or rewelding must not be returned to service until they are certified by either the manufacturer or a Registered Professional Engineer as meeting the strength requirements as stated above (the force of 150 percent of the maximum tire specification pressure).
Current charts or a rim manual containing instructions for the types of wheels being serviced must be available in the service area, including a mobile service unit. Only tools that are recommended in the rim manual may be used for the type of wheel being serviced.
The employer must also supply air line equipment with a clip-on chuck with sufficient length of hose between the chuck and in-line valve or regulator to allow the employee to stand outside the trajectory, as well as an in-line valve with a pressure gauge or a presettable regulator.
The size (bead diameter and tire/wheel width) and type of both the tire and wheel must be checked for compatibility prior to assembly of the rim wheel. Mismatching of half sizes such as 16-inch (40.6 centimeters) and 16.5 inch (42 centimeters) tires and wheels must be avoided.
Multi-piece wheel components must not be interchanged except as indicated in the applicable charts or rim manuals.
Multi-piece wheel components and single-piece wheels must be inspected prior to assembly. Any wheel or wheel component that is bent out of shape, pitted from corrosion, broken, or cracked must be marked or tagged “unserviceable” and removed from the service area. Damaged or leaky valves must be replaced.
Rim flanges, rim gutters, rings, and the bead-seating areas of wheels must be free of any dirt, surface rust, scale, or loose or flaked rubber buildup prior to tire mounting and inflation.
What Training Is Required?
The employer must provide a program to train all employees who service rim wheels in the hazards involved and the safety procedures to be followed.
The employer must assure that no employee services any rim wheel unless the worker has been instructed in correct procedures of mounting, demounting, and other servicing activities, and the safe operating precautions for the type of wheel being serviced.
At a minimum, the training program must include the requirements of the OSHA standard and the information in the manufacturers' rim manuals, or the OSHA charts. Charts are available from OSHA regional, area, or national offices.
The instruction must be conducted in an understandable way. Employees who are unable to read the charts or rim manuals must be trained in the subject matter. The employer must assure that each worker demonstrates and then maintains the ability to service rim wheels safely by correctly performing the following tasks:
- deflating and demounting tires;
- inspecting and identifying rim wheel components;
- mounting tires, including inflating them within a restraining device or other safeguard;
- handling rim wheels;
- inflating tires when single-piece rim wheels are mounted on a vehicle;
- understanding the necessity of standing outside the trajectory during inflation of the tires and of inspecting the rim wheels following inflation; and
- installing and removing rim wheels.
The employer must regularly evaluate each employee's performance and provide additional training, as necessary, to assure that each employee maintains his or her proficiency.